African studies-ch.3 African Background

Question Answer
What were the struggles of history? Nature, Society, Other humans, and their immediate selves.
What are the problems with African History? African history is very complex; Sources of history depends on griots; "westernize" the entire civilization
What is a griot? A group of oral historians who memorize history and pass it on to future generations.
What happened during the pre-kerma period? developed a dynasty similar to Egyptians, primary farmers and traders within Egypt had their own economic growth
What happened during the Kerma period? Strong political system; Colonized by Egyptians so they built temples
What happened during the Napata period? The Father of Piankhi wanted to understand people; The Victor text explained his victory over Egypt; Preferred treaties instead of warfare; Offered a safe passage for people to leave the city before battle so they could survive
Who was King Shabaka? Preserved the work of ancestors "The Memphite Theology"; Creator conceiving heart/mind and bring world into existence
Who is Amen Ra? Divine wife "shares the power" and governance of the country.
What country had the earliest civilizations? Egypt
What is Imhotep? The 1st 3-dimensional man; Father of medicine "god of healing"
What were the legacies of the Egyptians? Resurrection and judgement after death; Humans are seen as the image of God; Equality of men and women; Science and mathematics; Excellence in stone masonry; Treatment of poor as fundamental quality of society.
What were the 2 most important things about Ethiopia? Trade at the seaport located Red Sea and Indian Ocean; Iron technology.
Who was Ezana? Historical record consist of him ruling his people with righteousness and justice; Converted to Christianity and made it a state religion; Defeated Nubia.
What two key areas did Ghana gain its wealth? Salt and gold.
Who was King Tunka Menin? Politically powerful; Army of 200,000 soldiers while other nations only had 40,000; Appointed Muslims to his government and allowed them to practice their religion freely.
What is the smallest part of the Ghana Empire? Mali.
Who was the Emperor of Mali? Sundiata.
Who was Emperor Mansa? Built largest empire which expanded to Algeria; Known for pilgrimage to Mecca; Took over 60,000 people, traveled with gold to give to people on his travels; People followed him back to Mali; Built the University of Sankore at Timbuktu.
Who began the Songhai Empire? In 1468, by Sunni Ali Ber when he recaptured Timbuktu from Mali.
Who was Muhammad Toure? Administrator and a General who served in Sunni's army and was able to build an army out of POW's; Administration based on Islamic law; Surrounded himself with professionals in law to insure uniform justice in the empire.
Who was Askia Muhammad? Built largest empire in history of West and Central Africa; Pilgrimage to Mecca.
What happened in Askia's pilgrimage to Mecca? Appointed as Caliph of the Western Sudan; Political and religious problems; allies with Muslims, but enemies with Christians; Help develop intellectuals at University of Sankore.
What was used during Europe's conquest of Africa? Guns, Ships, and Capitalism
What were the results of the decline of African Societies? Conquer cities and empires; Dictate political development in Africa; Disrupt African trade and force European goods; Refuse to share with Africans what they learned from Africans; Europeans capitalize on the internal and external problems of Africa.

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